# Tutorial: Points-to analysis and type inference¶

This topic contains worked examples of how to write queries using the standard QL library classes for Python type inference.

## The Object class¶

The Object class and its subclasses FunctionObject, ClassObject and ModuleObject represent the values an expression may hold at runtime.

### Summary¶

Class hierarchy for Object:

• Object
• ClassObject
• FunctionObject
• ModuleObject

## Points-to analysis and type inference¶

Points-to analysis, sometimes known as pointer analysis, allows us to determine which objects an expression may “point to” at runtime.

Type inference allows us to infer what the types (classes) of an expression may be at runtime.

The predicate ControlFlowNode.refersTo(...) shows which object a control flow node may “refer to” at runtime.

ControlFlowNode.refersTo(...) has three variants:

predicate refersTo(Object object)
predicate refersTo(Object object, ControlFlowNode origin)
predicate refersTo(Object object, ClassObject cls, ControlFlowNode origin)


object is an object that the control flow node refers to, origin is where the object comes from, which is useful for displaying meaningful results, and cls is the inferred class of the object.

Note

ControlFlowNode.refersTo() cannot find all objects that a control flow node might point to as it impossible to be accurate and find all possible values. We prefer precision (no incorrect values) over recall (finding as many values as possible). We do this because queries based on points-to analysis have fewer false positives and are thus more useful.

For complex data flow analyses, involving multiple stages, the ControlFlowNode version is more precise, but for simple use cases the Expr based version is easier to use. For convenience, the Expr class also has the same three predicates. Expr.refersTo(...) also has three variants:

predicate refersTo(Object object)
predicate refersTo(Object object, AstNode origin)
predicate refersTo(Object object, ClassObject cls, AstNode origin)


## Using points-to analysis¶

In this example we use points-to analysis to build a more complex query. This query is included in the standard query set.

We want to find except blocks in a try statement that are in the wrong order. That is, where a more general exception type precedes a more specific one, which is a problem as the second except handler will never be executed.

First we can write a query to find ordered pairs of except blocks for a try statement.

Ordered except blocks in same try statement

import python

from Try t, ExceptStmt ex1, ExceptStmt ex2
where
exists(int i, int j |
ex1 = t.getHandler(i) and ex2 = t.getHandler(j) and i < j
)
select t, ex1, ex2


See this in the query console. Many projects contain ordered except blocks in a try statement.

Here ex1 and ex2 are both except handlers in the try statement t. By using the indices i and j we can also ensure that ex1 precedes ex2.

The results of this query need to be filtered to return only results where ex1 is more general than ex2. We can use the fact that an except block is more general than another block if the class it handles is a superclass of the other.

More general except block

exists(ClassObject cls1, ClassObject cls2 |
ex1.getType().refersTo(cls1) and
ex2.getType().refersTo(cls2) |
cls1 = cls2.getASuperType()
)


The line:

ex1.getType().refersTo(cls1)


ensures that cls1 is a ClassObject that the except block would handle.

Combining the parts of the query we get this:

More general except block precedes more specific

import python

from Try t, ExceptStmt ex1, ExceptStmt ex2
where
exists(int i, int j |
ex1 = t.getHandler(i) and ex2 = t.getHandler(j) and i < j
)
and
exists(ClassObject cls1, ClassObject cls2 |
ex1.getType().refersTo(cls1) and
ex2.getType().refersTo(cls2) |
cls1 = cls2.getASuperType()
)
select t, ex1, ex2


See this in the query console. This query finds only one result in the demo projects on LGTM.com (rg3/youtub-dl). The result is also highlighted by the standard query: Unreachable ‘except’ block.

Note

If you want to submit a query for use in LGTM, then the format must be of the form select element message. For example, you might replace the select statement with: select t, "Incorrect order of except blocks; more general precedes more specific"

## Using type inference¶

In this example we use type inference to determine when an object is used as a sequence in a for statement, but that object might not be an iterable.

First of all find what object is used in the for loop:

from For loop, Object iter
where loop.getIter().refersTo(iter)
select loop, iter


Then we need to determine if a ClassObject is iterable. ClassObject provides the predicate isIterable() which we can combine with the longer form of ControlFlowNode.refersTo() to get the class of the loop iterator, giving us this:

Find non-iterable used as a loop iterator

import python

from For loop, Object iter, ClassObject cls
where loop.getIter().refersTo(iter, cls, _)
and not cls.isIterable()
select loop, cls


See this in the query console. Many projects use a non-iterable as a loop iterator.

Many of the results shown will have cls as NoneType. It is more informative to show where these None values may come from. To do this we use the final field of refersTo, as follows:

Find non-iterable used as a loop iterator 2

import python

from For loop, Object iter, ClassObject cls, AstNode origin
where loop.getIter().refersTo(iter, cls, origin)
and not cls.isIterable()
select loop, cls, origin


See this in the query console. This reports the same results, but with a third column showing the source of the None values.

## Finding calls to functions using call-graph analysis¶

The FunctionObject class is a subclass of Object and corresponds to function objects in Python, in much the same way as the ClassObject class corresponds to class objects in Python.

The FunctionObject class has a method getACall() which allows us to find calls to a particular function (including builtin functions).

Returning to an example from Tutorial: Functions, we wish to find calls to the input function.

The original query looked this:

import python

from Call call, Name name
where call.getFunc() = name and name.getId() = "input"
select call, "call to 'input'."


See this in the query console. Two of the demo projects on LGTM.com have calls that match this pattern.

There are two problems with this query:

• It assumes that any call to something named “input” is a call to the builtin input function, which may result in some false positive results.
• It assumes that input cannot be referred to by any other name, which may result in some false negative results.

We can get much more accurate results using call-graph analysis. First, we can precisely identify the FunctionObject for the input function, by using the builtin_object QL predicate as follows:

import python

from FunctionObject input
where input = builtin_object("input")
select input


Then we can use FunctionObject.getACall() to identify calls to the input function, as follows:

import python

from ControlFlowNode call, FunctionObject input
where input = builtin_object("input") and
call = input.getACall()
select call, "call to 'input'."


See this in the query console. This accurately identifies calls to the builtin input function even when they are referred to using an alternative name. Any false positive results with calls to other input functions, reported by the original query, have been eliminated. It finds one result in files referenced by the saltstack/salt project.